Grey Market Premium Decoded: An IPO Guide

In this post, we’re going to talk about Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) and focus on something called the Grey Market Premium (GMP). Whether you’re new to investing or a seasoned pro, GMP is something that grabs the attention of many.

So, what’s an IPO? It’s when a company decides to go public and sell its shares to the public for the first time. Now, enter the Grey Market Premium – a vital indicator that tells us a lot about what investors think of an upcoming IPO. In this article, we’ll understand the concept of GMP, look at what influences it, and give you some practical insights to help you understand its impact.

Also Read: Demystifying Initial Public Offering (IPO)

Grey Market Premium Decoded An IPO Guide

What is Grey Market Premium?

In simple terms, Grey Market Premium is the extra amount people are willing to pay for shares of a new company that hasn’t officially started trading on the stock market. It’s like a little trading zone where buyers and sellers can make deals before the big show on the stock exchange.

Why Does GMP Matter?

GMP is like a temperature check for investor excitement. If the GMP is high, it means a lot of people are eager about the new company. On the flip side, a low or negative GMP might mean that people are feeling a bit unsure or not that excited.

Now, why should you care? Well, for investors looking at the IPO (the first time a company sells its shares to the public), GMP gives a heads-up about how much people are willing to pay. A high GMP could mean there’s a chance to make quick gains, while a low or negative GMP might signal caution.

Factors Influencing Grey Market Premium

Below are the factors that generally influence the GMP:

Market Sentiment

First up, we have market sentiment. Imagine it as the collective mood of investors. If everyone’s feeling positive about the market and the economy, GMP might get a boost. On the flip side, if there’s uncertainty or a bit of caution in the air, GMP could take a hit.

Company Fundamentals

The next star of the show is the company’s fundamentals. This includes things like its financial health, growth potential, and overall stability. A company with strong fundamentals often attracts more interest, leading to a higher GMP. On the other hand, if there are concerns about the company’s future, GMP might not soar as high.

Industry Trends

The performance of similar companies in the industry can influence GMP. If the industry is thriving, GMP might benefit from the positive wave. However, if there’s a downturn, GMP could face some headwinds.

Economic Conditions

Last but not least, economic conditions play a significant role. If the economy is doing well, investors might be more willing to take risks, resulting in a higher GMP. Conversely, a shaky economy could dampen enthusiasm and reflect in a lower GMP.

How is Grey Market Premium Calculated?

Calculating GMP involves a bit of financial arithmetic, but fear not – it’s not rocket science. Essentially, it’s the difference between the unofficial market price (what buyers are willing to pay in the grey market) and the official IPO price set by the company. Mathematically, it looks like this:

GMP=Grey Market Price−IPO Price

Here, the Grey Market Price is the price at which people are buying and selling shares in the unofficial market, and the IPO Price is the price set by the company for its shares during the IPO.

Now, let’s break it down further. The GMP isn’t just a random number – it’s influenced by a couple of key components.

  1. Demand and Supply Dynamics: Just like any market, GMP is affected by the basic economic principle of supply and demand. If more people want to buy shares (high demand) than sell them (low supply), GMP tends to go up. Conversely, if there’s more selling than buying, GMP may decrease.
  2. Market Speculation: Investors aren’t just looking at the company’s fundamentals; they’re also making speculative bets. If there’s a buzz about the company and investors believe its stock will perform well, GMP can see an upward trend. On the flip side, negative speculation can bring GMP down.

Understanding these components is like decoding the DNA of GMP. It’s not just a number; it’s a reflection of the dynamics at play in the market.

Grey Market Premium vs. Listing Day Performance

There’s often a correlation between the GMP and how the stock performs when it officially starts trading. If the GMP was high, indicating strong demand in the grey market, there’s a chance the stock might open at a premium on the listing day. Conversely, a low or negative GMP could signal a more modest debut.

While GMP can offer insights into the initial excitement around an IPO, it’s crucial to remember that the listing day performance doesn’t necessarily dictate the stock’s long-term journey. Some stocks that open at a premium might maintain their momentum, while others might experience fluctuations.

Below are the GMPs and Listing prices of a few of the recent IPOs from India

IPO Name Price IPO GMP Listed
Medi Assist Healthcare ₹418 ₹35 ₹465
Jyoti CNC Automation ₹331 ₹45 ₹370
Innova Captab ₹448 ₹85 ₹456
Azad Engineering ₹524 ₹200 ₹706
RBZ Jewellers ₹100 ₹5 ₹100
Happy Forgings ₹850 ₹250 ₹1000
Credo Brands (Mufti Jeans) ₹280 ₹100 ₹282
Motisons Jewellers ₹55 ₹56 ₹109
Suraj Estate Developers ₹360 ₹15 ₹340
Muthoot Microfin ₹291 ₹25 ₹275
Inox India ₹660 ₹550 ₹934
DOMS IPO ₹790 ₹490 ₹1300
India Shelter Finance ₹493 ₹165 ₹620
Flair Writing ₹304 ₹150 ₹503
Gandhar Oil ₹169 ₹75 ₹298
Fedbank Financial Services ₹140 ₹- ₹138
Tata Technologies ₹500 ₹430 ₹1200
IREDA ₹32 ₹12 ₹50
ASK Automotive ₹282 ₹30 ₹305
Protean eGov Technologies ₹792 ₹40 ₹792
ESAF Small Finance Bank ₹60 ₹20 ₹71
Mamaearth ₹324 ₹30 ₹330
Cello World ₹648 ₹180 ₹829
Blue Jet Healthcare ₹346 ₹25 ₹380
IRM Energy ₹505 ₹15 ₹478
Plaza Wires ₹54 ₹25 ₹76
Valiant Laboratories ₹140 ₹25 ₹162
Updater Services ₹300 ₹- ₹285
Manoj Vaibhav Gems ₹215 ₹10 ₹215

Also Read: Swing Trading vs Day Trading: Choosing the Right Approach


Grey Market Premium isn’t just a finance term; it holds significant value as an indicator that gives investors a glimpse into the market’s sentiment before a company goes public in an Initial Public Offering (IPO). It’s like a special preview, indicating the extra amount investors are willing to pay for shares before they officially debut on the stock exchange

As we wrap up, it’s essential to underscore that while GMP is a valuable tool, it’s not the sole determinant for investors. Successfully investing in IPO landscape requires a comprehensive approach. Consider GMP in conjunction with other critical factors such as company fundamentals, industry trends, and your own investment objectives.

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